Powder Metallurgy vs Metal Injection Mold

Powder Metallurgy vs Metal Injection Mold

50-100pm Powdered Particle Size 2-15pm
92% (Max) Relative Density >95-99%
2-20mm Wall Thickness 0.30 -10mm
Medium Component Complexity High
1-1,000g Weight 0.01-200g
0.1-2.0% Tolerance 0.3-0.5%

Choosing Between Powder Metal and MIM:

  1. MIM is excellent for complex shapes 
  2. MIM requires high temperatures to sinter
  3. MIM parts go through approximately 25% shrinkage
  4. MIM is expensive

Powder Metallurgy Basics:

  1. Begin with blending or mixing specific types of metal powders and lubricants.
  2. Place the mix in a die to create a certain shape.
  3. Use a press to compact the metal powder tightly.
  4. Sinter the compressed part in a furnace to form metallurgical bonds in the metal powder.

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Powder Metallurgy 3D Printing

Powder Metallurgy 3D Printing:

3D printing offers numerous benefits in the creation of parts.  Giving unmatched plan opportunity the capacity to make single or different segments from a wide scope of materials.

The technique is considered as an added substance measure instead of a subtractive cycle that eliminates layers of material, like processing.

Powder Metallurgy 3D Printing: Other terms often used to describe the general process include 3D Printing, Additive Fabrication, Freeform Fabrication, Fabbing and Additive Layer Manufacture.

Metal Powder Material: common materials used are stainless steels, aluminum, nickel, cobalt-chrome and titanium alloys.

3D Printing Process: There are many different branded additive manufacturing processes, that can be grouped into seven categories:

  1. Vat photopolymerization
  2. Material jetting
  3. Binder jetting
  4. Powder bed fusion
  5. Material extrusion
  6. Directed energy deposition
  7. Sheet lamination


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Source: https://www.metal-am.com/introduction-to-metal-additive-manufacturing-and-3d-printing/background-to-additive-manufacturing/

Powder Metallurgy PDF

Powder Metallurgy PDF: 

Why Powder Metallurgy is Important?

  • PM parts can be mass produced to net shape or near net shape, eliminating or reducing the need for subsequent machining.
  • PM process wastes very little material – about 97% of the starting powders are converted to product
  • PM parts can be made with a specified level of porosity, to produce porous metal parts. For examples: filters, oil-impregnated bearings and


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  1. http://www.me.nchu.edu.tw/lab/CIM/www/courses/Manufacturing%20Processes/Ch01-Intro-Wiley.pdf
  2. file:///C:/Users/Miko/Downloads/Powder%20Metallurgy%20PPT.pdf
  3. https://www.wiley.com/en-sg/Fundamentals+of+Modern+Manufacturing:+Materials,+Processes,+and+Systems,+7th+Edition-p-9781119475217
  4. https://www.metal-am.com/

Powder Metallurgy Manufacturing

Powder Metallurgy Manufacturing:

Powder metal really dates to the 1940s. Early items made by these strategies incorporate permeable orientation, electrical contacts, and established carbides. Through the interceding years, organizations carefully put resources into powder metallurgy innovation and advances, zeroing in their examination on angles like refinement, new compound turn of events, and atomization strategies for productively creating fine powders. Such exploration and advancement proceed right up ’til today. Quite possibly the most weighty advancements is net shape creation of PM parts through added substance fabricating (AM).

Powder metal (PM) parts are made from a fine metal powder that is packed and sintered to accomplish its last shape. This is very not the same as cast parts, which start their life as a melted metal, or from machine or manufactured parts, what get going as stock metal. The powder metal assembling measure makes it conceivable to make leaves behind an incredibly mind boggling calculation. While such parts may be made through projecting or machining, the assembling costs increment drastically as the intricacy rises. PM parts, notwithstanding, are savvy in any event, when the calculation is convoluted and can make parts that are difficult to create utilizing some other techniques.



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Additional Reference: MPIF

Powder Metal Products

Powder Metal Products:

Minimum possible weight of the part:: 0,005 kg
Maximum possible weight of the part: 1 kg
Minimum possible sizes of the part: 10 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm
Maximum possible sizes of the part: 100 mm x 100 mm x 70 mm
Minimum possible wall thickness: 1 mm
Maximum possible wall thickness: 10 mm
Tolerances achieved by pressing and sintering: +/- 0,05 mm
Tolerances achieved by post-machining: 0,001 mm
Minimum possible batch: From 3000 parts

Powder Metal Products:

  • Gears, bearings, sprockets, fasteners, electrical contacts, cutting tools, and various machinery parts.
  • Advantage of PM: parts can be made to near net shape or net shape
  • They require little or no additional shaping after PM processing
  • When produced in large quantities, gears and bearings are ideal for PM because:   The geometry is defined in two dimensions and need for porosity in the part to serve as a reservoir for lubricant.

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Powder Metal Forming

The powder metal forming process performed by heating compacted metal powders to just below their melting points.  The forming technology involves a production cycle comprising:

  1. Filling a die cavity with a known volume of the powder feedstock, delivered from a fill shoe
  2. Compaction of the powder within the die with punches to form the compact. Generally, compaction pressure is applied through punches from both ends of the toolset in order to reduce the level of density gradient within the compact.
  3. Ejection of the compact from the die, using the lower punch(es)
  4. Removal of the compact from the upper face of the die using the fill shoe in the fill stage of the next cycle.

The size of forming of powder metal:

The size and weight of the part is limited by the maximum tonnage capacity of available forming presses (around 1000 tones capacity). Around 2 kg. ferrous PM part would be regarded as being a large one.

A number of alternative forming processes have been developed, which have sought to attack one or more of these limitations.

1. Isostatic pressing can tackle all four limitations in that very large components can be formed,

2. Cold isostatic pressing: the powder is contained in a flexible mold, commonly of polyurethane, which is immersed in liquid.

3. Hot isostatic pressing: the pressuring medium is a gas, normally argon. The powder is contained in a metallic can, which is subjected to the hydrostatic pressure in the pressure vessel.




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Powder Metal Review





Powder Metal Process

Powder Metal Process after sintering: 

The advantage of powder metal process is that parts with complex shapes can be produced economically. However, due to the shrinkage or expansion of the parts during sintering, the size of the parts after sintering is often still not as required.

  • Powder Metal Process Methods: 

Powder metal process methods such as turning, grinding, and shaping must be used to meet the drawing and size requirements.

In addition, the surface or interior of some parts also need to be processed to meet the requirements.

These process include sandblasting, vibration grinding, Heat treatment, blackening, copper infiltration, oil infiltration, resin impregnation, CNC machining, etc.

  • Powder Metal Process Introduction: 
  1. Sizing: Or called correction, shaping; it is to put the sintered part into a mold or jig to press to make its roundness, flatness, parallelism, inner diameter, outer diameter or some dimensions more accurate.
  2. Re-pressing and re-sintering: General powder metal products can only reach about 90% of the density. In order to improve the compact and mechanical properties parts. The double-pressing and double-sintering can be used to increase the density again.
  3. Heat treatment:  The heat treatment is the same as general iron products, including nitriding, solid solution and precipitation.  But the biggest difference is that the powder gold parts have pores, and heat treatment can make the pores the same properties as the surface.
  4. Hardening:  When carbon is contained in the work, the heat treatment method of quenching and tempering can be used to improve its hardness and strength.
  5. Copper Infiltration: Copper infiltration is a common method. After the copper is melted, the pores in the sintered body are used to draw the copper liquid into the part. This method can increase the density to 7.5 g/cm3
  6. Immersion Resining
  7. Joining
  8. CNC Machining: Machining
  9. Tumbling
  10. Sandblasting
  11. Electroplating
  12. Blackening
  13. Oil seepage
  14. Ultrasonic cleaning

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Additional Resource: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powder_metallurgy

Powder Metal Advantage

Powder Metal Advantage

  • Can produce parts from materials capable of high-temperature service and extreme durability at lower cost and at reduced difficulty. Think of stainless steels that are subject to high temperatures in exhaust systems, etc.
  • Can maintain high production rates for parts, even complex parts.
  • Machining is mostly unnecessary due to the net shaping capabilities of powder metallurgy. Less secondary machining means lower labor costs.
  • High level of control is achievable using metal powders and sintering. This allows fine tuning of electrical and magnetic properties, density, damping, toughness, and hardness.
  • High-temperature sintering offers substantial improvements in tensile strength, bending fatigue strength, and impact energy.

Powder Metal disadvantage:

  • There are often size limitations to PM parts that can make certain designs impossible to produce. The biggest presses in the industry are about 1,500 tons. This limits practical part size to about 40-50 sq. in. of planar area. More realistically, average press sizes are in the 500 ton range, so plan accordingly for your part development.
  • Complex-shaped parts can also be challenging to make. However, high-skill metal parts manufacturers can get past this challenge, and even help you with your design.
  • Parts are generally not as strong or as ductile as cast irons or forged parts.


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Powder Metallurgy

Powder Metallurgy 

Powder Metallurgy  is a processing method that uses metal powder as a raw material to form various products through pressing and sintering. The powder metal process consists of three main steps which mixing, forming and sintering.

Powder metal technology is an important material preparation and forming technology, which is known as the key to solving high-tech and new material problems. It is an advanced technology for high-efficiency, high-quality, precise and  low-consumption manufacturing parts.

In the 1980s, many industries especially the automobile industry are relied on powder metal technology more than ever.

In order to expand the application range of powder metal parts, it is necessary to increase its density to obtain powder metal  parts with excellent mechanical properties.

Powder Metal process:

  1. Mixing: Mix different metal powders with lubricants.
  2. Press: powder into the mold for compression molding.
  3. Forming: After forming, the powder does not have enough binding force. It needs to be sintered to reach its hardness and physical properties. The sintering temperature is below the melting point of the main constituent metals. And the sintering time is about 20-40 minutes

Powder Metal Company: 

Pao Yue was established in 1980 as a small plant in Taiwan Tainan city. With rapid growth, the company successfully became an international professional powder metallurgy manufacturer. Today, we are a pioneer in powder metallurgy globally and We offer a “one-stop” end to end solution for our customers.

Powder Metal Application:

  1. Locking Structure Component
  2. Stainless Steel parts
  3. Steam treatment and Black Oxide
  4. Automobile & Motorbike Component Series
  5. Oil Pump Parts
  6. Clutch Parts
  7. Shifting Parts
  8. Transmission Gear Parts
  9. Seat Adjustment Parts
  10. Transmission Parts
  11. Power Tool Parts
  12. Industrial Machinery Component
  13. Oiliness Bearing Parts
  14. Belt Pulley
  15. Transmits Gear Parts
  16. Sprocket
  17. Hardware parts
  18. Pepper Mill Parts
  19. Outdoor Activities
  20. Sinter-Hardened Parts
  21. Office Equipment Parts


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Powder Metal Benefit

 Powder Metal Benefit:  3C1H of Powder Metal Benefit

  1. Cost-Effective: Is suited to moderate- to high-volume component production requirements
  2. Complexity: Facilitates manufacture of complex or unique shapes which would be impractical or impossible with other metalworking processes
  3. Capacity Saving: Provides controlled porosity for self-lubrication or filtration.
  4. High Performance: Offers long-term performance reliability in critical applications


More about Powder Metal: 

The powder metallurgy process provides a host of advantages over competing metalworking technologies. These all add up to part-to-part uniformity for improved product quality, shape and material flexibility, application versatility, and cost effectiveness.

  • Minimizes machining by producing parts at, or close to, final dimensions.
  • Minimizes scrap losses by typically using more than 97% of the starting raw material in the finished part.
  • Permits a wide variety of alloy systems.
  • Produces good surface finish.
  • Provides materials which may be heat treated for increased strength or increased wear resistance.


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